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[-.£:* "■

If Jl

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iii

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ILIOS

THE CITY J!^NT> COU3SrTEY

OF

THE TKOJAN8

THE leSDLTS OF lESElICIES UP DISC01EBIES ON THE SITE OF TBOI IND IBIOVGHOUI THE TBOID IN TIE lEAIS 1811-72-71-78-79

THE AUTHOS

,H1 S^fV

NOTE TO THE RBADffi

Tie psptt ta thii raliuM li bride or the inner margini are extremely narrow. We ha™ bound or rebound the volume ufllionj the belt meanipoiiible. PLEASE HANDLE WrTHTAPF

SCHLIEMANN

PENDICES, AND NOTES

:R, a. H. 8ATCE, J. p. MAHAFFY, H. BRITOSCH-BE Ub. F. CALVERT, iso Mb. A. J. DCFFIEU)

(Jtoi iyini ilm vpori 'IXiw iiviiiiunav

II. iil 304, 301 viii &', iyit se/i'fXne n, iia<^a6iiiS, tit o m ri 'lAiDU lipuiiuy mV yip 6iifi iI\>i\ob9ii(v

11. ix. 48, i9

WITH MAPS, PLANS, AND ABOUT 1600 ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK

HARPER k BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE

1881

rs

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1880, by

db. henry SCHLIEMANN,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

AU r^kis Tuerved,

i

i

,u

V^

TO THE BIGHT HONOUBABLE

WILLIAM EWART GLADSTONE, M.P., D.C.L.,

AS A TRIBUTE TO HIS ENTHUSIASTIC LABOURS AND SINGULAR INGENUITY IN ILLUSTRATING

THE POEMS OF HOMER,

THIS ACCOUNT OF RESEARCHES AND DISCOVERIES ON THE SITE OF

SACRED ILIOS

BY HIS ADMIRING AND GRATEFUL FRIEND

THE AUTHOR

i.

c*

CONTENTS.

PAGE

PREFACE. ^By Profeesor Rudolf VmcHow . . . * , ix

INTRODUCTION.— Autobiography of the Author, and Narrative of

HIS Work at Troy 1

CHAPTER I.— The Country of the Trojans (ol Tpaks) ... 67

II. Ethnography of the Trojans : their several Dominions

IN the Troad: Topography of Troy . . .119

in. The History of Troy 152

IV. The True Site of Homer's Iuum . . . .184

V. The First Pre-Historic City on the Hill of Hissarlik 211

VI. The Second Pre-Historic City on the Site of Troy 264

VII. The Third, the Burnt City 305

VIII. The Fourth Pre-Historic City on the Site of Troy 518

IX. The Fifth Pre-Historic City of Troy . . . 573

X. The Sixth City, most probably a Lydian Settlement 587

XI. The Seventh City : the Greek Iuum ; or Novum Ilium 608

XII. The Conical Mounds in the Troad called the Heroic

'I*

luMuu 648

APPENDIX I.— Troy and Hissarlik. By Professor Virchow . 673

n. On the Relation of Novum Ilium to the Ilios of

Homer. By Professor J. P. Mahaffy . . 686

HI. The Inscriptions found at Hissarlik. By Professor

A. H. Sayce 691

IV. Thymbra, Hanai Tepeh. By Mr. Consul Frank Calvert 706

V. Medical Practice in the Troad in 1869. By Pro- fessor Rudolf Virchow . . . . .721

VI. Catalogue of the Plants hitherto known of the

Troad, compiled according to the Collections of Professor Rudolf Virchow and Dr. Julius Schmidt, AND from the Literary Sources by Professor Paul Ascherson of Berlin, Professor Theodor von Held- REicH of Athens, and Doctor F. Kurtz of Berlin 727

VII. On the Lost Art of Hardening Copper. By A. J.

DUFFIELD . . . . . . '. . 737

VIII. On Hera Boopis. By Professor Henry Brugsch-Bey 740

IX.— Troy and Egypt. By Profos^sor Henry Brugsch-Bey 746

INDEX 762

Note. Special attention is also called tn Professor Max M&Der's Dissertation on

tlie r^ and ^ at i>age8 S (6-349.

MAPS AND PLANS

AT THE END OP THE BOOK.

Map of the Troad. By !^mil£ Burnouf

Plan I.— Of Troy. Idem.

II. Of the Hellenic Ilium. Idem.

III.— -The Great Central T'rench. (Section from North to South : West Side.) Idem.

IV. Grkat Trench, from South-East to North-West. (North Front.) Idem.

v.— Plan of the Subterranean Buildings of thi? Tumulus called XJjEK Tepeh. By M. Gorkiewicz.

VI. Transverse Section- of the Same. Idem.

ILLUSTRATIONS

Numbers 1-1570. Wood Engravings in the Body op the Work.

Note. These are so fully described in their places, that the repetition of the descriptions here would lie superfluous.

IttXMBERS 1801-2000.— Terra-cotta Whorls, Balls, etc., on the Plates

AT the End.

Note. The intermediate Numbers have been left vacant to avoid double Numbers, a^ tiie Numbers on the Plates had to be engraved before the Numbers in the text were fixtd.

DIAGRAM

SHOWING THE SUCCESSIVE STRATA OF REMAINS ON THE

HILL OF mSSABLIK.

Metres. Feet (aht).

Surface.

2 4

CO

CO

10

to 16

Stratum of the 7th City, the Aeolic Ilium.

gi Remains of the 6th, the Lydian CHty.

Stratum of the 5th City.

13

Stratum of the 4th City.

23 -

Stratum of the 3rd, the Burnt City (the Homeric Ilios).

33 - -

Stratum of the 2nd City.

45

to Stratum of the 1st City. 52J •_

Native rock.— Its present height above the sea is 109^ feet. Its present height above the plnin at the foot of the hill in consequently 59 J feet, but it may probably have been 16 or 20 feet more at the time of the Trojan war, the plain having increased in height by the alluvia of the rivers and the detritus of vegetable and animal matter.

OOMPABi^TIVE TABLB OF FRENOH AND ENGLISH MKASUBBS^

EXACT AND APPBOXIMATB.

^trio.

I

aches. - 0393708

1

Ft

Inch.

Appro •04 or

zimate.

1

Millimetre .

0

♦»

0-03937

A- of Inch.

Centimetre .

0

•393708

99

0

'39371

•4 .. « '

Decimetre

3

'93708

»♦

3

•9371

4 inches.

Metre

39

•3708

3

3

•3708

S^teeL

2

78

•7416

6

6

•7416

H ,

3

118

•1124

9

10'

•1124

10 ,

4

157<

•4832

13

1'

4832

13 ,

) 1

5

196'

•8540

16

4

8640

161 ,

I

6

23(5

•2248

19

8'

2248

m ,

1

, 1

7

275

•6956

22

11'

6956

23 ,

8

314

•9664

26

2'

"9664

26J ,

9

1

354

•3372

29

6'

3372

29^ ,

10

393

•7089

32

9-

7080

33 ,

11

433

•0788

36

1'

0788

36 (12 jds.)

12

472'

4496

39

4-

4496

39^ fwt.

13

611'

•8204

42

7-

0204

42f ,

14

651'

1912

45

11-

1912

46 ,

16

690'

"6(i20

49

2-

6620

49J ,

16

620'

•9328

62

5'

9328

62^ ,

17

669'

'3036

56

9'

3036

55} ,

18

708'

6744

69

0'

6744

69 ,

19

748'

0462

62

4-

0462

^^ ,

20

787'

•416

65

7-

4160

65f ,

30

1181-

124

98

6'

124

98y ,

t 1

40

1574-

832

131

2-

832

131i ,

1

9

60

1968'

64

164

0'

64

164 ,

100

3937-08

328

1'

08

328 (109 yd«.)

1 1

N.B.— The foUowiBg is a convenient approximate rule : " To turn Metres into Yards, add 1-llth to the number of Metres."

PREFACE

A BOOK like the present, certain to be so long talkediof after {Nachrede), has no real need of a Preface ( Vorrede). Nevertheless, as my friend •Schliemann insists on my introducing it to the public, I put aside all the scruples which, at least according to my own feeling, assign to me only an accessory position. A special chance allowed me to be one of the few eye-witnesses of the last excavations at Hissarlik, and to see the " Burnt " City emerge, in its whole extent, from the rubbish-heaps of former ages. At the same time I saw the Trojan land itself, from week to week, waking up out of its winter's sleep, and unfolding its natural glories in pictures ever new, ever more grand and impressive. I can therefoife bear my testimony, not only to the labours of the indefatigable explorer, who found no rest until his work lay before him fully done, but also to the truth of the foundations, on which was framed the poetical conception that has for thousands of years called forth the enchanted delight of the edu- cated world. And I recognize the duty of bearing my testimony against the host of doubters, who, with good or ill intentions, have never tired of carping alike at the trustworthiness and significance of his discoveries.

It is now an idle question, whether Schliemann, at the beginning of his researches, proceeded from right or wrong presuppositions. Not only has the result decided in his favour, but also the method of his investiga- tion has proved to be excellent. It may be, that his hypotheses were too bold, nay arbitrary ; that the enchanting picture of Homer's immortal poetry proved somewhat of a snare to his fancy; but this fault of imagination, if I may so call it, nevertheless involved the secret of his success. Who would have undertaken such great works, continued through so many years, have spent such large means out of his own fortune, have dug through layers of debris heaped one on the other in a series that seemed almost endless, down to the deep-lying virgin soil, - except a man who was penetrated with an assured, nay an enthusiastic conviction ? The Burnt City would still have lain to this day hidden in the earth, had not imagination guided the spade.

But severe enquiry has of itself taken the place of imagination. Tear by year the facts have been more duly estimated. The search for truth— for the whole truth and nothing but the truth has at last so far rele- gated the intuitions of poetry to the background, that I a naturalist habituated to the most dispassionate objective contemplation {mit der Oetvohnheit der Mltesten Ohjectivitdi) felt myself forced to remind my

X PREFACE BY PROFESSOR VIRCHOW.

friend, that the poet was not a poet only, that his pictures must also have had an objective foundation, and that nothing ought to deter us from bringing the reality, as it presented itself to us, into relation with the old legends formed upon definite recollections of the locality and of the events of the olden time. I rejoice that the book, as it now lies before us, fully satisfies both requirements : while it gives a true and faithful description of the discoveries and of the conditions of the land and the place, it everywhere links together the threads, which allow our imagination to bring the personal agents into definite relations with actual things. / The excavations at Hissarlik would have had an imperishable value, even if the Hiad had never been sung. Nowhere else in the world has the earth covered up so many remains of ancient settlements lying upon one another, with such rich contents within them. When we stand at the bottom of the great funnel, which has opened up the heart of the hill- fortress, and the eye wanders over the lofty walls of the excavations, beholding here the ruins of dwellings, there the utensils of the ancient inhabitants, at another spot the remnants of their food, every doubt as to the antiquity of this site soon vanishes. A mere dreamy contemplation is here excluded. The objects present such striking peculiarities as to position and stratification, that the comparison of their properties, whether among themselves, or with other remote discoveries, is of neces- sity forced upon us. One cannot be otherwise than realistic (objectiv), and I have pleasure in testifying that Schliemann's statements satisfy every demand of truthfulness and accuracy. Whoever has himself made an excavation knows that minor errors can hardly be avoided, and that the progress of an investigation almost always corrects some of the results of earlier stages of the enquiry. But at Hissarlik the correction was simple enough to guarantee the accuracy of the general result, and what is now oflFered to the world may be placed, in respect of the authenticity of the facts, beside the best researches of archaeology. Besides, an error in verifying the position of any object could in each case relate to details only ; the great mass of results cannot be affected thereby.

The simple investigation of the fortress-hill of Hissarlik suffices to prove with complete exactness the succession of the settlements, of which Schliemann now supposes seven. But order of succession is not yet chronology. From the former we learn what is older and what later, but not how old each separate stratum is. This question involves a comparison with other like places, or at least objects, the date of which is well established ; in other words, interpretation. But, with interpretation, uncertainty also begins. The archaeologist is seldom in the position of being able to support his interpretation by the identity of all the objects found. And especially, the farther the comparisons have to be fetched, the less is it possible to calculate that discoveries will corre- spond in their totality. Attention is therefore directed to single objects, just as the palaeontologist seeks for characteristic shells (Leitmuscheln), to determine the age of a geological stratum. But experience has shown how uncertain are the Leitmuseheln of archaeology. The human intellect invents identical things at different places, and different things at the

PREFACE BY PROFESSOR VIRCHOW. XI

same place. Certain artistical or technical forms are developed simul- taneously, without any connection or relation between the artists or craftsmen. I recal the case of the maeander ornament, which appears in Germany quite late, probably not till the time of the Eoman empe- rors, but presents itself much later still in Peru and on the Amazon, where it appears as yet inadmissible to regard it as imported. Local fashions and artistic forms are so far from being uncommon, that the expert sometimes recognizes the source of the discovery from a single piece.

In the case of Hissarlik, the strata which can be defined according to their whole character occur very near the surface. Under the Greek City (Novum Ilium), and the wall which is probably Macedonian, the excavator comes upon objects, especially upon pottery which, accord- ing to its form, material, and painting, belongs to what is called the Archaic period of Greek art. Then begins the Pre-historic age, in the narrower sense of the term. Dr. Schliemann has endeavoured, on good grounds, to show that the Sixth City, reckoning upwards, should be ascribed, in accordance with tradition, to the Lydians, and that we may recognize in its artistic forms an approximation to Etrurian or Umbrian pottery. But the deeper we go, the fewer correspondences do we find. In the Burnt City we occasionally meet with one or another object, which reminds us of Mycenae, of Cyprus, of Egypt, of Assyria ; or probably rather, which points to a like origin, or at least to similar models. Perhaps we shall succeed in multiplying these connecting links, but as yet so little is known of all these relations, that the adaptation of a foreign chronology to the new discoveries seems in the highest degree dangerous.

An example full of warning as to this sort of casuistical archaeology is furnished by the latest attack upon Dr. Schliemann by a scholar at St. Petersburg. Because Hissarlik offers certain points of correspondence with Mycenae, and the latter again with South Kussia, this scholar there- fore concludes that the South Russian chronology must also be the measure for Hissarlik, and that both Mycenae and Hissarlik are to be referred to roving hordes of Heruli in the third century after Christ. Going right to the opposite extreme, other scholars have been inclined to ascribe the oldest " cities " of Hissarlik to the Neolithic Age, because remarkable weapons and utensils of polished stone are found in them. Both these conceptions are equally unjustified and inadmissible. To the third century after Christ belongs the surface of the fortress-hill of Hissarlik, which still lies above the Macedonian wall; and the oldest "cities" although not only polished stones but also chipped flakes of chalcedony and obsidian occur in them— nevertheless fall within the Age of Metals For even in the First City, utensils of copper, gold, nay even silver, were dug up.

It is beyond doubt that no Stone People, properly so-called, dwelt upon the fortress-hill of Hissarlik, so far as it has been as yet uncovered. A progressive development of such a people to a higher metallic civili- zation can no more be spoken of here, than at any other point of Asia Minor hitherto known. Implements of polished stone are also found else-

r

xii PREFACE BY PROFESSOR VIRCHOW.

where in Asia Minor as, for example, in the neighbourhood of the ancient Sardes but it is not yet proved that they belong to the " Stone Age." Probably this people immigrated at a period of their development, at which they had already entered on the " Metal Age." Were we to take for the foundation of the discussion what first suggests itself, the frequent occurrence of nephrite and jadeite, we might suppose that the immigration took place from the borders of China, and that, when the people reached the Hellespont, they had already acquired a high degree of technical dexterity and of finished manufacture.

It may be an accident that even in the oldest city two stone hammers have been found with holes bored through them, whereas in no other spot of all Asia Minor, so far as I know, has any similar object occurred. In any case the art of stone-working was already far advanced, and the story of the foundation of Ilium, as sketched out in the Iliady exactly coincides with the discoveries. The few skulls also, which were saved out of the lower " cities," have this in common, that without exception they present the character {hahitus) of a more civilized people ; all savage peculiarities, in the stricter sense, are entirely wanting in them.

It is strange enough that this race, according to all appearance, had no iron. Although there occasionally occur native red iron-stones, which have evidently been used, yet every object which was originally regarded as an iron instrument has proved, on closer investigation, not to be iron.

No less strange is it that even in the Burnt City no proper sword has anywhere been found. Weapons of copper and bronze occur frequently lance-heads, daggers, arrow-heads, knives, if we may designate these as weapons but no swords. Corresponding to this deficiency is another in the case of ornaments, which to us Occidentals is still more striking, I mean the absence of the fibula (the buckle of the brooch). Among the copper and bronze pins are many which, judging from their size and curvature, may be regarded as pins for dress ; but no single fibula in our sense has occurred. I was Itlways of opinion, that the abundance of fibulae in the northern discoveries is explained by the greater necessity for fastening the garments tighter in colder climates. The Eoman provincial fibula, which in the northern countries is all but the most frequent object in the discoveries of the Imperial age, falls even in Italy quite into the background. But the fact that, among a race so rich in metals as the ancient Trojans, absolutely no fibula has occurred, is certainly a sign of very high antiquity, and a sure mark of distinction from the majority of Western discoveries which have been adduced in comparison. The same may be said, in passing, of the absence of lamps in the ancient " cities."

The pottery presents many more points of correspondence with that of the West. To be sure I could not cite any place where the whole of the pottery found agreed with that of any one of the older cities upon Hissarlik. It is not till the Sixth City that we find, as Dr, Schliemann has very convincingly proved, manifold relations with the Etruscan vases; and I might still further remark, that not a few of the forms which occur at Hissarlik in clay are executed in Etruria in bronze.

PREFACE BY PROFESSOR VIRCHOW. xiii

In this connection I may also refer, as Leitmuseheln, to the Etruscan beaked pitchers, which have been dug up in the heart of Germany and Belgium. In most of the pre-historic cities of Hissarlik there are terra- cottas just like those which are frequently met with in Hungary and Transylvania, in eastern and middle Germany, .nay even in the pile- dwellings of Switzerland. I myself possess, through the kindness of Dr. Victor Gross, fragments of black polished clay bowls from the Lake of Bienne, the inner surfaces of which are covered with incised geometrical patterns, filled with white earth, such as I brought away from the oldest city of Hissarlik. Quite lately I was present at the excavation of a great conical barrow, conducted by Prof. Klopfleisch in the territory of Anhalt : the greater number of the clay vessels discovered there had broad wing- shaped excrescences with perpendicular perforations, and very large and particularly broad handles, which were put on quite low down close to the bottom, like those met with in the Burnt City. I have before alluded to the similarity of the little animal figures, the ornamented stamps, and other terra-cottas in Hungary. The strange perforated incense- vessels (lanterns) of Hissarlik find numerous analogies in the burial-grounds of Lusatia and Posen.

I am not prepared to affirm that these are proofs of a direct connection. That question can only be reviewed when the countries of the Balkan peninsula shall have been more thoroughly investigated archseologically, a thing which is urgently to be desired. But even if a real connection should appear, the question will still remain open, whether the current of civilization set from Asia Minor to Eastern Europe, or the inverse way; and, since the former is presumptively the more probable, little would be gained hence for the chronology of Hissarlik.

Much might be brought in here, as, for instance, the hooked cross (Suastika), the Triquetrum, the circular and spiral decoration, the wave- ornament ; but I pass by these, as being widely-diffused marks, which, as we learn from experience, furnish little support for the determination of time. On the other hand, 1 cannot entirely refrain from touching on a point, on which I do not completely agree with Schliemann. I refer to our Face- Vases, such as occur plentifully in Pomerellen and East Pomerania, as far as Posen and Silesia, in a region distinctly defined. I cannot deny that there is a great resemblance between them and the Trojan " Owl- Vases," though I also admit that the " Owl's Face " does not occur upon them. But as to this matter I am disposed somewhat to modify my friend's expression. So far as I see, there is not a single Trojan Face- Vase, which can be said to have a true Owl's Head, or in which the part of the vase referred to can be regarded as completely in the form of a bird. As a matter of Natural History, the type of the form modelled on this upper part is human, and it is only within the human outlines and pro- portions that the nose and the region of the eyes are owl-formed. The ear, on the other hand, is always put on like that of a man, never like that of an owl. I do not deny that the form of the face often represents the owl-type, and I have no objection to make against the connection with the yXavKfOTn^, but I should not like to extend the likeness to a larger

XIV PREFACE BY PROFESSOR VIRCHOW.

surface than around the eyes and the upper part shoxd the nose : the ears, and the mouth (where it occurs), as well as the breasts, are exclusively human. And so only still more in the human form are also the Face- Urns of Pomerellen. I do not therefore give up the hope that a certain connection may yet be discovered ; but, if so, I am prepared to find that our Face -Urns will have to be assigned to a much later period than those of Troy.

My conclusion is this : that the discoveries at Hissarlik will not be explained by those made in the North or the West, but, inversely, that ^ we must test our collections by Oriental models. For Hissarlik also, the probable sources of connection lie East and South ; but their determina- tion requires new and far more thorough studies in the fields of the Oriental world, hitherto so scantily reaped. It was not the Uiad itself that first brought the Phoenicians and the Ethiopians into the Trojan legendary cycle ; the discoveries at Hissarlik themselves, in placing before our eyes ivory, enamel, figures of the hippopotamus, and fine works in / gold, point distinctly to Egypt and Assyria. It is there that the chrono- logical relations of Hissarlik must find their solution.

Meanwhile, however, there stands the great hill of ruins, forming for realistic contemplation a phenomenon quite as unique as the " Sacred Ilios " for poetical feeling. It has not its like. Never ©nee in any other heap of ruins is a standard given by which to judge it. Therefore it will not fit into the Procrustean bed of systematizers (Schematiket'). Hinc illae irae. This excavation has opened for the studies of the archaeologist a completely / new theatre like a world by itself. Here begins an entirely new science.

And in this unique hill there is a Stratum, and that one of the deepest according to Schliemann's present reckoning, the Third from the bottom, which especially arrests our attention. Here was a great devouring fire, in which the clay walls of the buildings were molten and made fluid like wax, so that congealed drops of glass bear witness at the present day to the mighty conflagration. Only at a few places are cinders left, whose structure enables us still to discover what was burnt, whether wood or straw, wheat or pease. A very small part of this city has upon the whole escaped the fire ; and only here and there in the burnt parts have portions of the houses remained uninjured beneath the rubbish of the foundering walls. Almost the whole is burnt to ashes. How enor- mous must have been the fire that devoured all this splendour ! We seem to hear the crackling of the wood, the crash of the tumbling buildings ! And, in spite of this, what riches have been brought to light out of the ashes ! Treasures of gold, one after another, presented themselves to the astonished eye. In that remote time, when man was so little advanced in the knowledge of the earth and of his own power, in that time when, as the poet tells us, the king's sons were shepherds, the possession of such treasures of the precious metals, and that in the finest and most costly workmanship, must have become famous far and wide. The splendour of this chieftain must have awakened envy and covetousness ; and the ruin of his high fortress can signify nothing else than his own downfall and the destruction of his race.

PREFACE BY PROFESSOR VIRCHOW. XV

•Was this chieftain Priam? Was this city Sacred Ilios? No one will ever fathom the question, whether these were the names which men used when the celebrated king still looked out from his elevated fortress over the Trojan Plain to the Hellespont. Perhaps these names are only the poet's inventions. Who can know ? Perhaps the legend had handed down no more than the story of the victorious enterprise of war undertaken from the West, to overthrow the kingdom and the city. But who will doubt that on this spot a terrible conquest was really won in fight against a garrison, who not only defended themselves, their families, and their houses, with weapons of stone and bronze, but who also had great wealth in gold and silver, ornaments and furniture, to protect ? It is in itself of little consequence to quarrel about the names of these men or of their city. And yet the first question that rises to every one's lips, to-day as in the time of Homer, is this: Who and whence among mankind/ were they ? Though the severe enquirer may refuse them names, though the whole race may glide past before the judgment-seat of science like the ghosts of Hades, yet for us, who love the colours of daylight, the dress of life, the glitter of personality, for us Priam and Ilium will remain the designations upon which our thoughts fasten, as often as they concern themselves with the events of that period. It was here, where Asia and Europe for the first time encountered in a war of extermination {in volkerfr&ssendem Kampfe) ; it was here that the only decisive victory was won in fight, which the West gained over the East on the soil of Asia, during the whole time down to Alexander the Great.

And now, under our eyes, this site has been again disclosed. When those men whom we call the Classics wrote, the burnt abodes lay hidden beneath the ruins of succeeding settlements. To the question " Where was Ilium ? " no one had an answer. Even the legend had no longer a locality. It must assuredly have been otherwise when the poem had its origin. Whether we call the poet Homer, or substitute in his place a host of nameless bards, when the poetic tale originated, the tradition must fetill have been preserved upon the spot, that the royal fortress had stood exactly on this mountain spur. It is in vain to dispute with the poet his knowledge of the place by his own eyesight. Whoever the " divine bard " was, he must have stood upon this hill of Hissarlik that is, the Castle- or Fortress-Hill and have looked out thence over land and sea. In no other case could he possibly have combined so much truth to nature in his poem. I have described, in a brief essay,^ the Trojan country as it is, and compared it with what the Hiad says of it, and I believe I may call any one to bear witness, whether it is possible that a poet living at a distance could have evolved out of his own imagination so faithful a picture of the land and people as is embodied in the Hiad,

To this is to be added another consideration. The Hiad is not merely an Epic which sings of human affairs : in the conflict of men the great circle of the Olympic gods takes part, acting and suflFering. Heuce it happened that the Iliad became the special religious book, the Bible of

I

* See Appendix I., Troy and HissarlV^

xvi PREFACE BY PROFESSOR VIRCHOW.

the Greeks and partly of the Eomans. This must not he overlooked. Therefore I have especially called attention to the fact, that the theatre for the action of the gods has been drawn much larger than for the men. The range of these poems extends far beyond the Plain of Troy. Its limit is there, where the eye finds its boundary, on the lofty summits of Ida and the peak of Samothrace, where the clouds have birth and the storms make their home. Who could have lighted upon such a story of the gods with this fineness of localizing, except one who had himself beheld the mighty phenomena of nature which are here displayed? Who, that had not gazed on them in their alternate course for days ana weeks together ?

The question of the Iliad is not simply the old question Ubi Ilium fuit ? No, it embraces the whole. We must not sever the story of the gods from the story of the men. The poet who sang of Ilium painted also the picture of the whole Trojan country. Ida and Samothrace, Tenedos and the Hellespont, Callicolone and the Eampart of Herakles, the Scamander and the memorial tumuli of the heroes— all this appeared before the view of the enraptured hearer. All this is inseparable. And therefore it is not / left to our choice, where we should place Ilium. Therefore we must have , a place, which answers to all the requirements of the poetry. There-

fore we are compdled to say :— JS?re, upon the fortress-hill of Hissarlik, . Y here, upon the site of the ruins of the Burnt City of Gold, here I was Ilium. *

And therefore thrice happy the man to whose lot it has fallen to realize in the maturity of manhood the dreams of his childhood, and to unveil the Burnt City. Whatever may be the acknowledgement of contemporaries, no one will be able to rob him of the consciousness, that he has solved the great problem of thousands of years. A barbarous government, which weighed as a heavy burthen on the land, has upon the whole kept down the condition of the surface of the country and the habits of human life in the Troad at the same level as when it imposed its yoke. Thus, much has been preserved which elsewhere would probably have been destroyed by daily cultivation. Schliemann was able to make his exca- vations, as it were, in a virgin soil. He had the courage to dig deeper and still deeper, to remove whole mountains of rubbish and debris ; and at last he saw before him the treasure sought and dreamt of, in its full reality. And now the treasure-digger has become a scholar, who, with long and earnest study, has compared the facts of his experience, as well as the statements of historians and geographers, with the legendary tradi- tions of poets and mythologers. May the work which he has terminated become to many thousands a source of enjoyment and instruction, as it will be to himself an everlasting glory !

BUDOLF VIKCHOW.

Berlin, September 10^/t, 1880,

ILIOS.

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INTRODUCTION.

AUTOEEOGBAPHY OF THE AUTHOB, AND NABBATIVE OF HIS WOBK

AT TBOY.

§ I. Eably and Commercial Life: 1822 to 1866.

Ip I begin this book with my antobiography, it is not from any feeling of vanity, but from a desire to show how the work of my later life has been the 'natural consequence of the impressions I received in my earliest childhood ; and that, so to say, the pickaxe and spade for the excavation of Troy and the royal tombs of Mycenae were both forged and sharpened in the little German village in which I passed eight years of my earliest childhood. I also find it necessary to relate how I obtained the means trhich enabled me, in the autumn of my life, to realize the great projects I formed when I was a poor little boy. But I flatter myself that the manner in which I have employed my time, as well as the use I have made of my wealth, will meet with general approbation, and that my autobiography may aid in difiusing among the intelligent public of all countries a taste for those high and noble studies, which have sustained my courage during the hard trials of my life, and which will sweeten the days yet left me to live.

I was bom on the 6th of January, 1822, in the little town of Neu Buckow, in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, where my father,^ Ernest Schliemann, was Protestant clergyman, and whence, in 1823, he was elected in that capacity to the parish of the village of Ankershagen between Waren and Penzlin, in the same duchy. In that village I spent the eight following years of my life ; and my natural disposition for the mysterious and the . marvellous was stimulated to a passion by the wonders of the locality in which I lived. Our garden-house was said to be haunted by the ghost of my father's predecessor, Pastor von Kussdorf ; and just behind our garden was a pond called "das Silberschalchen," out of which a maiden was believed to rise each midnight, holding a silver bowl. There was also in the village a small hill surrounded by a ditch, probably a pre-historic

^ Deceased in NoTember 1870, at the age of 90 yean.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OP THE AUTHOR.

[Iktrod.

burial-place (or so-called Hunengrah) -^ in which, as the legend ran, a robber knight in times of old had buried his beloved child in a golden cradle. Vast treasures were also said to be buried close to the ruins of a round tower in the garden of the proprietor of the village. My faith in the existence of these treasures was so great that, whenever I heard my father complain of his poverty, I always expressed my astonishment that he did not dig up the silver bowl or the golden cradle, and so become rich. There was likewise in Ankershagen a medieval castle, with secret passages in its walls, which were six feet thick, and an underground road, which was supposed to be five miles long, and to pass beneath the deep lake of Speck; it was said to be haunted by fearful spectres, and no villager spoke of it without terror.' There was a legend, that the castle had once been inhabited by a robber knight of the name of Henning von Holstein, popularly called